Журнал рецептурной науки и биодоступности

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Объем 1, Проблема 1 (2017)

Обзорная статья

A Review on Sublingual Tablets

prathusha P, praneeth kamarapu

Drug delivery through the oral mucous film is considered to be a promising contrasting option to the oral course. Sublingual course is a quick onset of activity and preferred patient consistence over orally ingested tablets. Sublingual (contracted SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", alludes to the pharmacological course of organization by which drugs diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue. Sublingual course is a valuable when fast onset of activity is wanted with preferable patient consistence over orally ingested tablets. Regarding penetrability, the sublingual al range of the oral pit (i.e. the floor of the mouth) is more porous than the buccal (cheek) range, which thusly is more penetrable than the palatal (top of the mouth) territory.

исследовательская статья

Preparation of Starch Nanoparticles in a New Ionic Liquid-in-Oil Microemulsion

Luo Zhigang

In this work, a new room-temperature ionic liquid 1-hydroxypropyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C3OHmim]Ac) was synthesized to dissolve starch and substitute for polar phase to form [C3OHmim]Ac/TX-100+1-butanol/cyclohexane microemulsions. The molecular structure of [C3OHmim]Ac was confirmed by means of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) and electrospray ionization masss pectrometry (ESI–MS). Pseudo-ternary phase diagram, conductivity measurement and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to analyze the microregion of IL/O micro-emulsion. Starch nanoparticles were prepared in this novel IL/O micro-emulsion with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) maize starch as the raw material and epichlorohydrin as the cross-linker. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data demonstrated the formation of crosslinking bonds in starch molecules. The spectrum of XRD suggested that the crystal structure of starch was destroyed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) both intuitively revealed that starch nanoparticles had good sphericity, small size and a relatively concentrated size distribution with the mean diameter of starch nanoparticles 105 nm.

Обзорная статья

Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis and Its Applications in Different Fields

Ali Ahmed

The Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay (SCGE) is a better technique for the detection of DNA damage and DNA repair in eukaryotes. First time comet assay technique was designed by Ostling and Johanson in 1984 and then it was modified by Singh et al. in 1988. There are four main steps in comet assay. These are:
1. Encapsulation of cell in agarose having low melting point.
2. Lysis of cells.
3. Gel electrophoresis and forth is staining and visualization.
This technique is also known as comet assay because DNA movement pattern in gel electrophoresis similar to a comet. The comet assay is use for the measurement of DNA strand breaks in eukaryotes. In this technique cell suspended in agarose on a slide and lysed with detergent to form nucleoid contain supercoiled DNA attached with nuclear matrix. A comet which was made in electrophoresis detected by fluorescence microscopy, manual or mechanical methods use for scoring but now a day’s mechanical methods are very useful. Comet assay have simplicity, sensitivity, speed and economical use. In this review we discuss its protocol and its applications in different fields.

исследовательская статья

Plasma Mannoheptulose Kinetics in Adult Domestic Short-Haired Felines

Anna K Shoveller

Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, has been investigated as a functional feed ingredient for canines. However, no studies have sought to feed MH to felines. The purpose of this study was to assess whether ingested MH appears in peripheral circulation of adult domestic short-hair felines (N = 10, 4.1 ± 0.1 kg, 1.6 y) fed a MH containing diet. The study was designed as a randomized cross-over with each cat receiving dietary treatments, control and MH. Each study period lasted 28 d and a meal challenge was performed on d 28. Felines were fasted overnight, anaesthetized, and a catheter was inserted into the jugular vein for repeated blood sampling. A fasting blood sample was collected six hours after catheter placement. Subsequently, felines were offered their full daily ration of test diet and blood was collected every 2 h during the 24 h post-prandial period for analysis of plasma MH. Ingested MH appeared in the plasma within 2 h of ingestion confirming that dietary MH is absorbed and available for cellular uptake. Circulating MH was cleared from plasma within 24 h of ingestion. The differences in plasma MH kinetics between species are likely attributed to differences in feline carbohydrate metabolism relative to other mammals. No MH was detected in cats fed the control diet. These results suggest that MH is digested, absorbed and available from peripheral circulation in adult cats. Finally, MH remains in circulation longer than in dogs and may suggest that cats would only need a lower dose or fewer doses of MH per day.

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Role of Drama in Oral Health Education - The Point of View of Dental Student

Tevatia S

Oral health care is the most important part of person day to day life. Many methods are documented in literature so far for oral health programmes which includes interventions aiming at affecting attitudinal and behavioural change through interactive sessions such as role-play, nukkad nataks, have led to self-reported reductions in risk habits in adults as well as children. Use of applied drama and theatre in oral health promotion is increasing, but knowledge about its effectiveness for health and well-being is still limited. This review is aimed to detect the role of drama in oral health care programmes

Обзорная статья

Delivery Vehicles for Antiplaque Agents

Thevatia S

Oral health is an integral part of general health. Poor oral health can have adverse effects on general health. Hence a good oral and general health is very essential, which in turn is achieved by good oral hygiene. Even though, the concept of good oral hygiene evolved some 5000 yrs back. It is only in the beginning of the 19th century it gained more importance. The earlier concept of maintaining oral hygiene by just cleaving the food debris has been taken over by removal of plaque, an infectious agent responsible for many common dental diseases, in the 20th century. Plaque control is one of the keystones of the practice of dentistry, without it, oral health can neither be attained, nor preserved. For patient with healthy periodontium, Plaque control means preservation of health. For the patient with periodontal disease, it means optimal healing, following treatment. For the patient with treated periodontal disease, plaque control means the prevention of recurrence of disease.


Nose to Brain Drug Delivery: A Recent Update

Chatterjee B

Drugs used to treat brain or central nervous system disorder suffer from shortfall of absorption and reaching brain due to blood brain barrier and cerebro spinal fluid barrier. Intra nasal administration of brain targeted drug delivery system is gaining popularity to circumvent blood brain barrier and enhance drug availability in brain. It also shows promising reduction of systemic adverse effect incurred by the drug. However there are major limitation of this route which restrict its success of application. Despite different dosage forms such as micro or nano emulsion, gel, in situ gel etc the intra nasal route is still lacking wide applicability. This short review aims to highlight some important features related to nose to brain drug delivery along with its potential challenges that need to overcome. It has focused on few interesting or significant articles on the matter published within last 4-5 years.

Обзорная статья

Advantage of Delivering the Gene Therapy Tool (Cas9) as Purified Protein Formulation

Doolaanea AA

Gene editing permits the alteration of genomic sequences in vitro and in vivo, which could serve as a powerful tool in basic research and human gene therapy. The recent clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system has revolutionized the way of gene editing. To be used in human, a suitable in vivo-compatible delivery form and method should be used. The delivery form here is meant ‘what’ is being introduced to the body: plasmid DNA, viral vector, mRNA, purified protein or other while the delivery method is meant ‘how’ the CRISPR system is introduced or administered: lipid transfection, electroporation, nanoparticles, liposomes or others. The brief discussion in this article suggests that delivering the protein component of the CRISPR system as purified protein has several advantages considering different sides like the industrial feasibility and pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic aspects.

исследовательская статья

Multiple Unit Particle Systems (MUPS), a Versatile Strategy for Controlled Drug Delivery: Focus on Formulation and Process Concerns

Kallakunta VR, Sarabu S and Tiwari RV*

In oral drug delivery modified release dosage forms (MRD) plays an important role in regulating the drug delivery to improve the quality of therapy. One excellent technique to formulate MRDs is multiple unit particle systems (MUPS), where the dosage form is distributed over multiple units rather than a single unit. This unique feature of MUPS makes them a suitable candidate for the delivery of different types of drug molecules for a variety of therapeutic purposes. The current techniques like fluidized bed granulation and, extrusion and spheronization are promising in maintaining uniformity of dosage form and successful drug delivery at the desired site or maintaining the desired time profile of drug delivery. Apart from formulation strategies more focus is required in process optimization and scale-up issues to broaden the range of application of MUPS to different drug candidates and drug delivery systems.

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Advantages of Jelly over Liquid Formulations for Pediatrics

Doolaanea AA and Bahari AZBS

Jellies for oral administration are non-flowable gelatinous preparations having a certain shape and size. This dosage form is being explored for applications for pediatric patients and other populations like geriatric and dysphagic patients. It has several advantages over liquid dosage forms in term of palatability, patient acceptance, suitability for controlled release applications and stability. Due to lack of information of several aspects of jellies for pediatrics, much more further studies are encouraged.

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