Журнал биоразнообразия и исчезающих видов

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Объем 1, Проблема 3 (2013)

исследовательская статья

Current Status of the Critically Endangered South China Sika Deer and Its Dispersal Out of the Protected Area: Effects of Human Activity and Habitat Alteration

Chunwang Li, Xiaoge Ping, Xueli Lu, Wuhua Liu, Huanbing Zhu, Xiangrong Xu and Zhigang Jiang

South China sika deer (Cervus nippon kopschi) is a critically endangered cervid subspecies. To learn the current status of the largest population of south China sika deer in Taohongling Nature Reserve, we monitored the changes of population size from 1980 to 2011. Our survey indicated that deer population size in the core area of the reserve increased from 90 in 1983 to 312 in 1998, then decreased to 160 in 2005, and again increased to 275 in 2007 and 365 in 2011. We also found that many deer dispersed from the core area of reserve to the surrounding areas. The initial increase was due to the vegetation change, as when logging was stopped and other human activity was reduced after the establishing of the nature reserve, vegetation in the reserve changed from grass dominant to shrub-arbor dominant. The later decrease and dispersal of sika deer to other areas might be caused by habitat alteration and the establishment of other deer farms around the reserve. Three deer farms have been established during past four years, and the roar of the stags of captive herds of another subspecies of Cervus nippon hortulorum attracted wild south China sika deer came down the hill during the rut season. To provide better environment for wild sika deer, we suggest that: some measures such as prescribed burning and slash logging should be taken for restraining the arboreal succession in the reserve; deer farms of Cervus nippon hortulorum around the reserve should be reduced or removed; appropriate human activity such as restricted firewood collection might be allowed in the reserve.
Обзорная статья

Assessing Population Trend and Risk of Extinction for Cetaceans Lacking Long-Term Census Baselines

Shiang-Lin Huang

Assessment of population trend and risk of extinction, essential for informed conservation, needs baselines including percentage of population decline, extent of occurrence, population size, population structure and probabilities of extinction. Construction of these baselines usually claims long-term census efforts that are often insufficient or even lacking for many cetaceans, especially for those nearby rapidly developing countries. Restricted to variation from current census techniques, however, the approach based on long-term census database is unlikely to detect early or recent sign of population decline. Here, I propose an integrative perspective, the systematic demographic analysis, to solve life history and demographic parameters essential for status and risk assessment for the cetacean populations. Transect technique with the aid of GPS records and environmental characteristics can be used to estimate population abundance and figure the extent of occurrence and critical habitat, information essential for sound habitat protection. Capturemark- recapture technique based on the database from individual photo-ID histories can be used to estimate population size, apparent survival rate and life history parameters. Collections of stranded and by caught carcasses can be used to solve life history parameters, age-specific survivorships or mortality rates and population genetic diversity indirectly relating to population size. Applications of population viability analysis to above parameters such as VORTEX model or other individual-based stage/age matrix model that factors the stochasticity and uncertainty can be used to solve the likely range of rate of decline and extinction risk of threatened population. Finally, I emphasize the need to integrate the histories of long-term land use and landscape change when formulating habitat management programme for the rare and/or endangered populations to avoid skipping the low-sighting habitat from intense anthropogenic impacts.
Обзорная статья

Biodiversity and the African Savanna: Problems of Definition and Interpretation

Michael O’Neal Campbell

This article examines the various theoretical frameworks and paradigm tools in ecological methods that have been developed to analyze the structure of the African savanna. These are based on the new disequilibrium ecology paradigm, (in contrast to the classical ecology paradigm), which sees the savanna as in continual flux rather than sable equilibrium, and attempt to answer questions concerning socio-environmental relations and environmental change. This topic is crucial to the study of biodiversity and endangered species, as the savanna may be intermediate between forest and desert, and may be the habitat of numerous forest and desert species. The savanna is an ecosystem in its own right and also results from the processes of deforestation, desertification and extinction. The results of the review support the hypothesis that the complexity of the African savanna precludes the usage of classical equilibrium ecology, and the integrated research methods provide a useful basis for the advancement of biodiversity studies for the practical applications of comparative evaluation, measurement of multidirectional change and long-term assessment.
Перспективная статья

Sustainable Energy Maintaining into Local Development Plan in Nepal

Raj Sigdel E

Over 50% of Nepal’s economy depends on natural resources. Environment and poverty issues are linked closely. Therefore, Nepal needs to follow sustainable development path that takes an account of poor as well as contributes to sustainable development of environment. Many poor women and children suffer from respiratory problems related to indoor air pollution and suffer lack of economic opportunities due to lack of energy access. Sustainable energy management could be a viable strategy to address twin objectives of poverty alleviation and environment management. Effective management of national energy sector and energy development and expansion in rural areas will contribute directly in the improvement of the overall rural population’s living standard through maintaining ecological balance, save time in collection of fuel wood, generate additional employment opportunities, improve health and increase access to education to rural children. Sustainable development depends in large measure on successfully integrating environment and energy into economic planning and decision-making, a process known as environmental mainstreaming. Successful mainstreaming can be achieved only when the pro-poor environmental linked alternative energy program and activities are adequately incorporated in socio-economic development plan and programs of local bodies. While reviewing 15 District and five Municipal Annual Development Plans, it was revealed that 95%local bodies have considered environment as a major program in their annual development plan. Only 50% local bodies have included alternative energy management program in this annual development plans. Moreover, less than 1% program as well as budgets of the studied District Development Committee and Municipalities were directed towards addressing the energy demands of local communities. To better address the environment in general and energy in particular issues it is imperative further enhance the capacity of local bodies.
исследовательская статья

Ex-situ Seed Conservation of Endangered Key Tree Cactus (Pilosocereus robinii)

Ana Salazar, Joyce Maschinski and Devon Powell

Ex-situ seed collections are fundamental to the conservation of threatened and endangered plant species. We tested whether or not seeds of the U.S. endangered tree cactus, Pilosocereus robinii, withstand orthodox storage conditions of low humidity (25%RH) and freezing temperatures (-20°C). Mean final germination of fresh seeds and seeds stored under low humidity and low temperature for 1 and 28 weeks ranged from 92 to 96%. Mean final germination did not differ significantly across storage conditions. Seed germination rate exhibited small, but significant differences across storage conditions. Seeds stored under dry conditions of low humidity and ambient temperature germinated significantly faster than dry-stored seeds maintained at freezing temperatures and fresh seeds. Because orthodox methods of drying and freezing can be used to store seeds of Pilosocereus robinii, ex-situ seed banking can effectively assist the conservation and regeneration of this endangered species.
История болезни

Species Diversity of Short Horned Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Selected Grasslands of Solapur District, Maharashtra, India

Somnath Waghmare, Dinesh Waghmare and P S Bhatnagar

In the class insects, grasshopper is one of the largest and diverse group. They are dominant above ground invertebrates in cultivated and in natural grasslands ecosystems and they are functionally important. For the first time survey and collection of short horned grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) was carried out from selected grasslands of Solapur district, Maharashtra, India. Short horned grasshopper species were surveyed in selected grasslands of Solapur district, Maharashtra, India. 7 species belonging to 7 different genera i.e. Acrida, Gastrimargus, Trilophidia, Catantops, Calaptenopsis, Chrotogonus and Atractomorpha and 4 different subfamilies Tryxalinae, Cedipodinae, Catantopinae and Pyrgomorphinae were recorded.

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